Aston Martin UK’s coolest brand

first_img Share Aston Martin UK’s coolest brand whatsapp Sports car maker Aston Martin is the coolest brand in Britain, according to a survey. Renowned for making vehicles driven by James Bond, it came top of the annual poll, reclaiming the number one spot from Apple’s iPhone which came second. Apple’s iPod was named third coolest, followed by Blackberry and stereo and TV maker Bang & Olufsen. The survey was run by The Center for Brand Analysis which creates league tables based on the opinions of marketing experts, business professionals and thousands of British consumers.Key factors in the selection process included, style, innovation, desirability and originality. Tags: NULL by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeMisterStoryWoman Files For Divorce After Seeing This Photo – Can You See Why?MisterStoryTotal PastThe Ingenious Reason There Are No Mosquitoes At Disney WorldTotal PastNoteabley25 Funny Notes Written By StrangersNoteableyMoneyPailShe Was A Star, Now She Works In ScottsdaleMoneyPailSerendipity TimesInside Coco Chanel’s Eerily Abandoned Mansion Frozen In TimeSerendipity TimesBrake For ItThe Most Worthless Cars Ever MadeBrake For ItBetterBe20 Stunning Female AthletesBetterBemoneycougar.comThis Proves The Osmonds Weren’t So Innocentmoneycougar.comautooverload.comDeclassified Vietnam War Photos The Public Wasn’t Meant To Seeautooverload.comcenter_img KCS-content whatsapp Show Comments ▼ Tuesday 28 September 2010 11:01 pm More From Our Partners Brave 7-Year-old Boy Swims an Hour to Rescue His Dad and Little Sistergoodnewsnetwork.orgRussell Wilson, AOC among many voicing support for Naomi Osakacbsnews.comNative American Tribe Gets Back Sacred Island Taken 160 Years Agogoodnewsnetwork.orgKiller drone ‘hunted down a human target’ without being told tonypost.comPolice Capture Elusive Tiger Poacher After 20 Years of Pursuing the Huntergoodnewsnetwork.orgA ProPublica investigation has caused outrage in the U.S. this weekvaluewalk.comAstounding Fossil Discovery in California After Man Looks Closelygoodnewsnetwork.orgMark Eaton, former NBA All-Star, dead at 64nypost.comBiden received funds from top Russia lobbyist before Nord Stream 2 giveawaynypost.comSidney Crosby, Alex Ovechkin are graying and frayingnypost.comWhy people are finding dryer sheets in their mailboxesnypost.com980-foot skyscraper sways in China, prompting panic and‘Neighbor from hell’ faces new charges after scaring off home buyersnypost.comFeds seized 18 devices from Rudy Giuliani and his employees in April raidnypost.comUK teen died on school trip after teachers allegedly refused her pleasnypost.comSupermodel Anne Vyalitsyna claims income drop, pushes for child supportnypost.comI blew off Adam Sandler 22 years ago — and it’s my biggest regretnypost.comFlorida woman allegedly crashes children’s birthday party, rapes teennypost.comlast_img read more

National Tyre Services Limited ( 2010 Annual Report

first_imgNational Tyre Services Limited ( listed on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange under the Industrial holding sector has released it’s 2010 annual report.For more information about National Tyre Services Limited ( reports, abridged reports, interim earnings results and earnings presentations, visit the National Tyre Services Limited ( company page on AfricanFinancials.Document: National Tyre Services Limited (  2010 annual report.Company ProfileNational Tyre Services Limited is the largest distributor and retailer of new tyres and tubes for the automotive industry in Zimbabwe. Its focus is on re-lugging tyres used in the agricultural and earthmoving sector and the procurement of truck tyres for the Zimbabwe transport industry. Popular tyre brands sold by National Tyre Services include Dunlop, Firestone, Bridgestone, Yokohama, Pirelli, Bandag, Regal and Comforser. It offers products in its ranger catering for sedans, SUVs, off-road vehicles, light trucks and heavy-duty trucks and buses. Its service outlets deal with wheel alignment, wheel balancing, product support and inner tyre tubes. The company has a national footprint with 12 retail outlets in major towns and cities in Zimbabwe. The re-lugging factory is in Harare and Chiredzi and re-treading and procurement of truck tyres is done out of Harare and Bulawayo. National Tyre Services Limited is listed on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchangelast_img read more

Ocado is now worth as much as Tesco. Here’s the one I’d buy

first_imgOcado is now worth as much as Tesco. Here’s the one I’d buy I’m sure you’ll agree that’s quite the statement from Motley Fool Co-Founder Tom Gardner.But since our US analyst team first recommended shares in this unique tech stock back in 2016, the value has soared.What’s more, we firmly believe there’s still plenty of upside in its future. In fact, even throughout the current coronavirus crisis, its performance has been beating Wall St expectations.And right now, we’re giving you a chance to discover exactly what has got our analysts all fired up about this niche industry phenomenon, in our FREE special report, A Top US Share From The Motley Fool. See all posts by Alan Oscroft Ocado (LSE: OCDO) briefly leapfrogged Tesco (LSE: TSCO) as the FTSE 100‘s most highly valued retailer this week. That’s astonishing.The two are jostling for the top valuation spot, and they’re pretty much neck and neck as I write these words. The market capitalisation of each stands at almost exactly £21bn. At this week’s peak, though, Ocado reached a valuation of £21.7bn, putting a bit of clear space between it and its rival.5G is here – and shares of this ‘sleeping giant’ could be a great way for you to potentially profit!According to one leading industry firm, the 5G boom could create a global industry worth US$12.3 TRILLION out of thin air…And if you click here we’ll show you something that could be key to unlocking 5G’s full potential…The two share prices have performed very differently this year. In 2020, the Tesco share price has fallen 17%, better than the FTSE 100’s 21% drop, but not by much. In stark contrast, Ocado shares have soared by 120%.The Covid-19 pandemic and lockdown lie behind all this, of course. But what 2020 has really done for me is hammer home that the move to online shopping and home deliveries is a one-way shift. I really can’t see people going back, now they’ve sampled the convenience.The market is potentially enormous too. Estimates for Tesco’s online sales put their 2020 value at around £5.5bn, from about £3.3bn in 2019. And online sales still only account for around 16% of Tesco’s total.Tesco vs OcadoHow do we put the cultural change and these vastly different share prices into any kind of perspective? It isn’t easy. For one thing, the market shares of the two companies are vastly different.According to figures from Kantar, Tesco currently controls 26.8% of the UK’s groceries market. Ocado, by contrast, has just 1.7%. So how can the two companies possibly command almost identical market valuations?That question betrays a misunderstanding of how the market sees the two. It’s a misunderstanding I used to share, but the market view of Ocado has evolved. Today, Ocado is not seen, or valued, as a supermarket like Tesco. No, it’s treated as a technology company, able to provide the entire set of control software and infrastructure for retailers around the globe to set up their own operations.The company has deals in place in the US, Australia, France, Canada and in Sweden. Its offering has the potential to transform a humble supermarket chain into a sleek online retailer fit to compete with the best.Growth valuationYou can see the way groups of investors chasing hopes of technology-led growth have pushed Ocado shares way ahead of Tesco. There are big spurts for Ocado in 2018 and 2019, following on from the ‘just another supermarket’ years. The 2020 climb dwarfs them both though.That brings me to the bottom line. To the thing that so often trips up a soaring growth stock. Ocado is not making any profit. And analysts are forecasting pre-tax losses of around £150m per year for at least the next two years. Sure, revenue is climbing. But until that translates to profit, there are very few quantitative metrics we can use to try to work out a sensible valuation.Give me the cashTesco, meanwhile, is nicely profitable and paying good dividends. And its shares are valued on only modest forward P/E multiples. I’d buy Tesco today, and leave Ocado for those willing to take on the ‘jam tomorrow’ risk. I would like to receive emails from you about product information and offers from The Fool and its business partners. Each of these emails will provide a link to unsubscribe from future emails. More information about how The Fool collects, stores, and handles personal data is available in its Privacy Statement. Alan Oscroft | Thursday, 1st October, 2020 | More on: OCDO TSCO Renowned stock-picker Mark Rogers and his analyst team at The Motley Fool UK have named 6 shares that they believe UK investors should consider buying NOW.So if you’re looking for more stock ideas to try and best position your portfolio today, then it might be a good day for you. Because we’re offering a full 33% off your first year of membership to our flagship share-tipping service, backed by our ‘no quibbles’ 30-day subscription fee refund guarantee. Alan Oscroft has no position in any of the shares mentioned. The Motley Fool UK has recommended Tesco. Views expressed on the companies mentioned in this article are those of the writer and therefore may differ from the official recommendations we make in our subscription services such as Share Advisor, Hidden Winners and Pro. Here at The Motley Fool we believe that considering a diverse range of insights makes us better investors.center_img “This Stock Could Be Like Buying Amazon in 1997” Our 6 ‘Best Buys Now’ Shares Enter Your Email Address Click here to claim your copy now — and we’ll tell you the name of this Top US Share… free of charge! Image source: Getty Images. Simply click below to discover how you can take advantage of this.last_img read more

‘Service of cleansing and celebration’ to be held following nerve…

first_img Anglican Communion Family Ministry Coordinator Baton Rouge, LA Rector/Priest in Charge (PT) Lisbon, ME Canon for Family Ministry Jackson, MS This Summer’s Anti-Racism Training Online Course (Diocese of New Jersey) June 18-July 16 Rector Tampa, FL Youth Minister Lorton, VA Submit an Event Listing New Berrigan Book With Episcopal Roots Cascade Books Associate Rector Columbus, GA ‘Service of cleansing and celebration’ to be held following nerve agent incident in Britain Episcopal Migration Ministries’ Virtual Prayer Vigil for World Refugee Day Facebook Live Prayer Vigil June 20 @ 7 p.m. ET Rector Belleville, IL Rector Knoxville, TN Rector Collierville, TN Featured Events Director of Music Morristown, NJ An Evening with Presiding Bishop Curry and Iconographer Kelly Latimore Episcopal Migration Ministries via Zoom June 23 @ 6 p.m. ET The Church Investment Group Commends the Taskforce on the Theology of Money on its report, The Theology of Money and Investing as Doing Theology Church Investment Group Associate Priest for Pastoral Care New York, NY Press Release Service Remember Holy Land Christians on Jerusalem Sunday, June 20 American Friends of the Episcopal Diocese of Jerusalem Cathedral Dean Boise, ID Curate (Associate & Priest-in-Charge) Traverse City, MI Missioner for Disaster Resilience Sacramento, CA Priest Associate or Director of Adult Ministries Greenville, SC Tags In-person Retreat: Thanksgiving Trinity Retreat Center (West Cornwall, CT) Nov. 24-28 TryTank Experimental Lab and York St. John University of England Launch Survey to Study the Impact of Covid-19 on the Episcopal Church TryTank Experimental Lab Associate Rector for Family Ministries Anchorage, AK Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Hires Reverend Kevin W. VanHook, II as Executive Director Episcopal Charities of the Diocese of New York Rector Smithfield, NC Rector and Chaplain Eugene, OR Curate Diocese of Nebraska Rector Bath, NC Rector Washington, DC Rector Pittsburgh, PA Rector Hopkinsville, KY Assistant/Associate Rector Washington, DC Assistant/Associate Priest Scottsdale, AZ Submit a Job Listing Posted Apr 11, 2018 Assistant/Associate Rector Morristown, NJ Ya no son extranjeros: Un diálogo acerca de inmigración Una conversación de Zoom June 22 @ 7 p.m. ET Inaugural Diocesan Feast Day Celebrating Juneteenth San Francisco, CA (and livestream) June 19 @ 2 p.m. PT Rector (FT or PT) Indian River, MI AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to PrintFriendlyPrintFriendlyShare to FacebookFacebookShare to TwitterTwitterShare to EmailEmailShare to MoreAddThis [Anglican Communion News Service] Sites across the center of Salisbury remain cordoned off more than a month after Sergei and Yulia Skripal were found unconscious on a bench in the city center. They were later found to have been poisoned by Novichok, a nerve-agent linked to the Russian government.On April 15, Bishop of Salisbury Nicholas Holtam will lead a “service of cleansing and celebration” in the parish church of St. Thomas’, not far from where the Skripals were found.Read the full article here. Rector Shreveport, LA Join the Episcopal Diocese of Texas in Celebrating the Pauli Murray Feast Online Worship Service June 27 Bishop Diocesan Springfield, IL Priest-in-Charge Lebanon, OH Virtual Celebration of the Jerusalem Princess Basma Center Zoom Conversation June 19 @ 12 p.m. ET Rector Albany, NY Course Director Jerusalem, Israel The Church Pension Fund Invests $20 Million in Impact Investment Fund Designed to Preserve Workforce Housing Communities Nationwide Church Pension Group Featured Jobs & Calls Rector Martinsville, VA Submit a Press Release Director of Administration & Finance Atlanta, GA Seminary of the Southwest announces appointment of two new full time faculty members Seminary of the Southwest last_img read more

Low Energy MZ house / Calderon-Folch Studio

first_img “COPY” Photographs ArchDaily ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOr Clipboard CopySave this picture!© Pol ViladomsRecommended ProductsEnclosures / Double Skin FacadesIsland Exterior FabricatorsCurtain Wall Facade SystemsEnclosures / Double Skin FacadesFranken-SchotterFacade System –  LINEAEnclosures / Double Skin FacadesRodecaRound Facade at Omnisport Arena ApeldoornEnclosures / Double Skin FacadesAlucoilStructural Honeycomb Panels – LarcoreText description provided by the architects. Enjoy a centenary house with the maximum comfort and minimum energy cost. The challenge was to refurbish a house built in 1918 maintaining both the original volume and façade whilst improving the thermal and acoustic comfort. The construction systems and materials used have made possible not only to achieve the goal but also to lower the energy demand from 171 kWh/m2a to 17 kWh/m2a (known as a 10 factor rehabilitation); transforming a traditional  existing building into a Passive House in only 120 days.Save this picture!© Rodrigo Díaz-WichmannThe three main difficulties were: the north-east orientation of the row house, the limited budget and the urgency of the clients to move in. Save this picture!SectionThe main operation was to redesign the section in order to re-orientate the house. The new skylight permits the solar passive gain in winter, the cross natural ventilation in summer, fills the centre of the house with natural light and provides a proper orientation to the solar panels. A new big opening stretches the tiny interior towards the garden.Save this picture!© Rodrigo Díaz-WichmannA prefabricated dry construction system was chosen to achieve the maximum precision and shorten the building process. The different elements (roof, façade, mezzanine, staircase, skylight) were designed like Meccano pieces to be manufactured with a numerical control system and afterwards assembled in site. The whole roof was mounted in few hours, the same as the other elements.Save this picture!© Rodrigo Díaz-WichmannIn addition to such excellent energetic performance, bio-construction materials were used in order to reduce the environmental impact. Therefore, the new roof and façade were built out of a structural wood-frame construction system using OSB panels and natural sheep wool and wood-fibre boards for insulation. The ventilated façade is finished with planks of natural larch wood and the roof with heat-treated pine wood. In the interior, the mezzanine, kitchen and cupboards are entirely made of 3 Ply Shuttering panels and linoleum for the flooring. The house is provided with solar panels for water heating and a high energy efficient device for ventilation.Save this picture!First Floor PlanProject gallerySee allShow lessGrand Central Terminal Drawing Competition WinnersArticlesWheelwright Prize CompetitionArticles Share “COPY” Year:  Spain Photographs:  Rodrigo Díaz-Wichmann, Pol Viladoms + 13 Share Low Energy MZ house / Calderon-Folch Studio Houses Low Energy MZ house / Calderon-Folch StudioSave this projectSaveLow Energy MZ house / Calderon-Folch StudioSave this picture!© Pol ViladomsHouses•Barcelona, Spain 2012 Architects: Calderon-Folch Studio Year Completion year of this architecture project CopyAbout this officeCalderon-Folch StudioOfficeFollowProductsWoodConcreteBrick#TagsProjectsBuilt ProjectsSelected ProjectsResidential ArchitectureHousesDabasWood3D ModellingSagrada FamiliaBarcelonaSpainPublished on December 27, 2012Cite: “Low Energy MZ house / Calderon-Folch Studio” [Casa eficiente MZ / Calderon-Folch Studio] 27 Dec 2012. ArchDaily. Accessed 11 Jun 2021. ISSN 0719-8884Read commentsBrowse the CatalogPartitionsSkyfoldChoosing the Skyfold Wall for Your SpaceVinyl Walls3MVinyl Finish – DI-NOC™ SandShowerhansgroheShowers – Raindance SelectWoodEGGERTimberSignage / Display SystemsGoppionDisplay Case – Bre-ClassMetallicsTrimoMetal Panels for Roofs – Trimoterm SNVLightsLouis PoulsenOutdoor Lighting – Flindt PlazaStonesMikado QuartzQuartz Slab – MarbleWoodStructureCraftEngineering – Long-Span StructuresWoodBlumer LehmannAssembly and Logistics of Wood ProjectsHandlesKarcher DesignDoor Handle Madeira ER45Chairs / Benches / CouchesArperModular Sofa – LoopMore products »Read commentsSave想阅读文章的中文版本吗?低能耗MZ住宅 / Calderon-Folch Studio是否翻译成中文现有为你所在地区特制的网站?想浏览ArchDaily中国吗?Take me there »✖You’ve started following your first account!Did you know?You’ll now receive updates based on what you follow! Personalize your stream and start following your favorite authors, offices and users.Go to my stream ShareFacebookTwitterPinterestWhatsappMailOr Clipboard Projectslast_img read more

Be credible to major donors

first_imgBe credible to major donors We must be credible and transparent to our major donors to attract their donations, delegates were told at a recent conference.Caroline Underwood, director of philanthropy and partnerships at Save the Children said that many organisations are still not prepared to show donors the overall financial situation of the organisation. “Be honest about any financial problems,” she advissed, “because donors will find out.”“It is not new that donors want to know how the money is spent,” she said, “but what is new is that we have to tell them and to be transparent.”She said a major donor might ask about your reserves, what percentage of your budget is spent on fundraising, what your CEO is paid and what your total expenditure is on programmes. Prepare a fact sheet of Q&As and keep it as part of your ‘tools of the trade’, she advised.And major donor fundraisers should show ‘innovation and flexibility’. “Do look for people who are creative, innovative, bright, personable and able to adapt to different situations. I propose that in tough times donors will be looking for organisations to be more creative too.”Underwood was speaking at the first conference organised jointly by the Institute of Fundraising in the UK and the Association of Fundraising Professionals in the US. More than 200 delegates attended the ‘Global Perspectives on Major Donor Fundraising’ event in Tagged with: Institute of Fundraising Major gift Howard Lake | 26 November 2008 | News AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis  23 total views,  1 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of Researching massive growth in giving.last_img read more

Crowdfunding platform launches in support of Syria

first_img Tagged with: crowdfunding health International About Melanie May Melanie May is a journalist and copywriter specialising in writing both for and about the charity and marketing services sectors since 2001. She can be reached via Melanie May | 14 July 2017 | News AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis17 A crowdfunding platform has launched to support local organisations providing health-related aid projects in Syria.CanDo, which was behind the first crowdfunded hospital in Syria, has launched the platform to help more funding get to the local organisations that carry out much of the aid work in the country. According to CanDo, local humanitarians carry out 75% of aid yet only receive 1% of funding.The CanDo platform encourages people to support local humanitarians through donating to healthcare projects featured on the platform, with 100% of the money raised going to the causes.Throughout July and August, CanDo is encouraging the public to support a number of humanitarian health-related projects in Syria, including:Ghiras Al Nahda: a project to teach locals how to grow mushrooms as a sustainable source of fresh food in a besieged areaInsan: a self-help programme to help Syrian women manage the difficulties facing them during the warHurras (pictured): a magazine distributed in cities across Syria and online that aims to teach children how to protect themselves during conflict through storytellingBihar: a project providing protection services for vulnerable women who may have faced sexual violenceLast December, CanDo led the People’s Convoy, which saw almost £250,000 – 270% of the fundraising target ­– raised in 12 days to rebuild the last children’s hospital that had been bombed out of action in Aleppo, Syria. Hope Hospital will continue to be supported by CanDo and public funding via the new platform.CanDo Founder and CEO, Dr Rola Hallam said:“‘Hope Hospital’ was a clear victory for humanity. While it might seem like a small victory in the face of the continued adversity in Syria, it demonstrated that positive change can occur with hope and the power of people.“CanDo’s new crowdfunding platform gives everyday people the chance to contribute to the work of local humanitarians, including doctors, teachers and volunteers, and help prevent the suffering of Syrian people. We believe people are the next super power. When we come together and join up our efforts, everyone can create transformative and positive change.” Advertisementcenter_img  178 total views,  2 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis17 Crowdfunding platform launches in support of Syria  177 total views,  1 views todaylast_img read more

Caravans to Cuba continue to challenge blockade

first_imgHave the changes in U.S.-Cuba relations made activities like the Pastors for Peace Friendshipment Caravans unnecessary?The Interreligious Foundation for Community Organization says the changes make the annual caravan and travel to Cuba as needed as ever. Although it appears that much has changed in U.S.-Cuba relations, the underlying laws and regulations that restrict trade and travel for U.S. residents and businesses still exist. Extraterritorial restrictions on international commerce with Cuba are also still very much in effect.At a June 24 meeting in New York City, IFCO launched a massive national outreach campaign urging Congress to support legislation that would end the ban on travel and trade with Cuba. The campaign will target congressional members as they head home to their district offices for the July break.In a small but unprecedented move, a Senate committee has approved amendments to the federal spending bill that would lift the travel ban that still prevents U.S. tourists from legal travel to Cuba.“Now is the time to end this blockade once and for all!” exclaimed IFCO Executive Director Gail Walker, an organizer of the annual U.S.-Cuba Friendshipment Caravan. “Only grass-roots pressure on Congress will get these bills passed before President Obama leaves office. Now is the time for people of faith and conscience to stand up and speak out to end this unjust policy that harms both Cubans and people in the United States.”In a prepared statement joining the campaign, the Rev. Lennox Yearwood stated, “The proof that our efforts have worked lies in recent changes announced by the Obama administration to move toward normalizing relations with Cuba.”Yearwood is the CEO and founder of the Hip Hop Caucus, an IFCO board member and a grass-roots faith leader. He added: “We welcome this first step toward the reversal of a blockade policy that has caused decades of pain and suffering for the Cuban people. But we know that more must be done. It’s time, while there is still time, for this president and this Congress to end the blockade on Cuba, and it is past time for this president to use his executive power to close Guantánamo prison and return Guantánamo to its rightful owners: the people of Cuba.”Caravan participants will visit members of Congress from July 5 through July 14 and then travel to Cuba for 10 days to deliver humanitarian aid and messages of love and friendship. Since 1992, IFCO has organized 27 U.S.-Cuba Friendshipment caravans and hundreds of delegations that have delivered humanitarian aid as a direct challenge to the U.S. blockade.Resource and background information is available at Find East Coast, Midwest and West Coast meeting schedules at thisFacebookTwitterWhatsAppEmailPrintMoreShare thislast_img read more

Harvard University: Year in Pictures 2009-2010

first_imgIn her Commencement remarks, President Drew Faust celebrated the year’s achievements, which included expanded public service, blossoming arts programs, broadened community outreach, and myriad academic accomplishments. Here, she discusses the year that was, with, as backdrop, a photo diary of life at Harvard, which bookends students arriving with pillows and graduating with hugs.last_img

Just rewards

first_imgA Harvard University study built around an innovative economic game indicates that, at least for our younger selves, the desire for equity often trumps the urge to maximize rewards.“We were able to show that 8-year-olds have a general sense of fairness and are willing to make large sacrifices to enforce it with other children,” said Peter Blake, a postdoctoral researcher at Harvard’s Program for Evolutionary Dynamics who co-authored the study with Katherine McAuliffe, a doctoral student at the University’s Department of Human Evolutionary Biology. “Children younger than 8 are more self-interested, yet they’re still willing to deny themselves rewards in order to prevent a transaction that’s unfair to them.”The study, which was conducted under the auspices of Harvard’s Laboratory for Developmental Studies and appears in the August 2011 issue of the journal Cognition, explores a fundamental principle of economics, namely that humans do all they can — within the bounds of utility and constraints on resources — to maximize the satisfaction they get from consumption. According to this line of thinking, equity is more or less irrelevant to economic decision-making. People make choices based on whether a given transaction will leave them better off than they were before, not whether it will leave them as well off as their neighbor, or even the party with which they do business.To test these assumptions — and to explore the development of economic decision-making among children — Blake and McAuliffe created the Inequity Game, an activity that allows children to accept or reject an unequal offer, both when it is advantageous to them and when it is not.As parents and others looked on, researchers paired each participant with an unfamiliar peer — one designated the “decider,” one the “recipient” — and seated the children face to face at an apparatus created especially for the game. An adult then allocated candy on trays designated for each child.“One kid was in charge of the toy,” said Blake. “He or she got to make decisions by pulling one of two handles in front of them. The other guy was just a passive recipient. If one kid got more than the other, the decider could pull the green handle and accept that outcome, or he could pull the red handle, the candy goes in the middle, and no one gets those.”Some pairs were tested in a condition that Blake and McAuliffe called “advantageous inequity” (decider gets 4 pieces of candy; recipient gets one); some in “disadvantageous inequity” (decider gets one piece of candy; recipient gets four). Deciders in each condition also got offers of an equal outcome: one piece of candy for each participant.“The game allows us to look at how one individual reacts to inequity when they are responsible for their own payoffs, as well as someone else’s,” McAuliffe explained. “The main question we were asking was, ‘Would children reject candy to prevent an unfair allocation of resources?’ The design has been very successful because kids enjoy learning about the apparatus and pulling the handles — not to mention the fact that they are motivated by the Skittles!”Blake and McAuliffe were satisfied, but not surprised, by the results for children ages 4 to 7. The deciders in these groups generally accepted equal offers, as well as offers in their favor. They usually rejected unequal offers, although Blake said that children hesitated before pulling the red handle and sending all the candy — including the piece allotted to the decider — into the neutral bowl.“They hesitate to reject an offer, even if they’re not coming out on top,” he said. “It’s hard for them to give up that one piece of candy, yet they’re willing to do it, whereas when they get more, there’s no problem. It’s very easy to make that decision.”McAuliffe said the behavior of the younger children in the study conflicts with the economist’s notion of rational behavior.“Even a 4-year-old child is willing to pay a cost to prevent a peer from getting more candy, when, in theory, they should accept any nonzero offer,” she said. “On the other hand, if we look at the behavior from the perspective of evolutionary biology and think of individuals in a competitive setting, it may not be irrational to prevent a relative disadvantage, even if it does mean sacrificing personal gain.”The most surprising behavior occurred among the eight-year-olds in the study. The deciders in this age group continued to accept equal offers and reject unequal offers that were disadvantageous, just as their younger counterparts had done. But 8-year-olds also rejected allocations that were unequal, even when they benefited from the disparities.“We weren’t expecting to see 8-year-olds willing to sacrifice so much candy to prevent a peer from getting less than them,” said McAuliffe. “In some cases, children were giving up 24 candies in a given session. It shows that fairness or inequity aversion is an important factor in determining how these children behave. Relative rewards do matter.”In the years ahead, the researchers hope to clarify the motivations behind the behavior they observed in the children. It could be that the participants in the study made their decisions based on internalized norms of fairness. It’s also possible, however, that the children were concerned not with enforcing equity, but with preserving their reputations.“They could be considering the audience around them and saying, ‘I don’t want to look like I’m being selfish by accepting all this candy. I know that I’ll reap future benefits by rejecting now,’” said Blake. “An awareness of reputation could be emerging. And that’s the next big step to test.”last_img read more